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On Dispute and Intellectual Argument

Some attempt to prove that argument and debate is wrong by quoting several of the following ayats from the Quran. The first two are:

(1) - "There is no dispute between us and you. Allah will assemble us, and to Him is the return, And those who dispute concerning Allah after it has been accepted by the people, of no use is their dispute before their Lord and on them is wrath and for them shall be a severe torment"[Shurah - 15,16]

These ayahs clarify for us the type of argument which is blameworthy and wrong. It is as Allah makes clear that their are some people who argue after the truth has been made perfectly clear to them(i.e. they know what is true, i.e.Islam). This argumentation is the characteristic of someone who has stubborn opposition to the truth and is pridefully rejecting the truth even after it has been made clear to him. Such an attitude is worthy of the contempt of all people of intellect. Allah talks about people like this saying:

(2)"And they said: Are our gods better or is he(Jesus)? They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! They were a quarrelsome people."[Az-Zakhraf - 58]

Indeed Allah censures in this ayat those people who were arguers and debators for evil reasons. They defended the idols of stone which they worshiped, and they didn't think that Jesus was a prophet despite his support by numerous miracles, such as raising the dead and others. Allah says about such people:

(3)"And those who argue as regards our signs and proofs, there is no place of refuge for them"[Shurah - 35]

and in another ayat:

(4)"And if they dispute with you(Mohammed) say: I have submitted myself to Allah and (so have) those who have followed me"[Aali Imran - 20]

Allah says in the Quran:

(5)"Had it(Quran) been from other than Allah they would surely, have found in it a great deal of contradictions" [An-Nisaa - 82]

It is evident from this ayah that the words of Allah do not contradict or disagree with each other. And we find that Allah provides us with an exception(to the earlier ayats against arguing with people) which debating others with the truth and, in fact, commands us to do it. He taught us clearly that the thing He commanded us with is completely different with no similarity to what he forbade us from earlier. We are taught in all of these ayats the manner and type of argument which is forbidden and blameworthy and the type which is praiseworthy and commanded. We find that Allah says:

(6)"And who is better in speech then he who invites to Allah(islam) and does good deeds"[Fussilat - 33]

And in another ayat we find:

(7)"Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good words, and argue with them in a way that is better, Verily your Lord knows who has gone astray from His path and who is guided"[An-Nahl - 125]

And Allah ordered debate in this ayah, taught us the manners and methods of debating. We are to bound to do this with friendliness and clarity, with an obligation to truth, and must resort to conclusive proofs.

[Conclusion of this was that there are two paths of argument. One which is fruitless, wrong, and we are commanded against. It is to argue with people who are persistent on their error, despite the fact that the truth has been made clear to them. They only argue because they are quarrelsome people and full of pride. To argue with such people is a waste of time and will accomplish nothing. On the other hand their is a type of debate or dawah or argument which is praiseworthy and commanded upon the Muslims. It is to debate the rest of the people who are not arrogantly holding on to their beliefs, and are open to the dawah]